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List of Old Tongue words

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Word list from the Companion Edit

The following list of words is from the Wheel of Time Companion released in November 2015


a—(prep.) of; also, makes plural when added to the end of a word

aada—(adj.) dear

aigret—(adj.) awake

aan—(n. & adj.) one (masculine)

Aan’allein—(n.) One Man, or Man Alone, or Man Who Is an Entire People; Aiel term for Lan

abakran—(n.) amount

a’dam—(n.) leash; used by the Seanchan

ae—(v. suffix) denotes passive voice

aend—(adv.) ever

aes—(n.) all; everyone; the public body; civilization

Aesdaishar—(n.) Glory of All; name of the palace in Chachin

Aes Sedai—(n.) Servants of All

aethan—(n.) shield(s)

Aethan Dor—(n.) Red Shields: an Aiel warrior society

afwadh—(n.) well

agaroum—(n.) disgust

aginor —(n.) a Forsaken; compound word that means “slicer of the living”

agit—(n.) living organism

ahenila—(n.) current, as in a river

ahf—(n.) wind; i.e., an air current

Ahf’frait—(n.) a Trolloc band; literally, “strong wind”

aiel—(n. & adj.) dedicated;  Aiel—the Dedicated

ailen—(conj., prep. & adj.) before

ain—(v.) is; one form of the verb “to be”

airach—(n. & adj.) living

aird—(adj.) tall

ajah—(n.) an association created for a specific purpose; capitalized, it refers to a group of women within the White Tower organized to accomplish a specific goal

akein—(n.) swallow; i.e., a type of bird

al—(prep.); “for the” or “of the”; also, a prefix added to the first name of Malkieri kings

alantin—(n.) brother; used as short for “Tia avende alantin”, “Brother to the Trees”; how Selene/Lanfear addressed Loial

al‘cair—(adj.) the gold(en)

Al'Cair Dai—(n.) the Golden Bowl, a canyon in the Aiel Waste

al’cair'rahienallen—(n.) literally: Gold(en) Dawn Hill; ancient name for Cairhien, used by Ogier throughout the Third Age

al caldazar—(n.) red eagle

aldazar—(n.) eagle(s)

aldieb—(n.) west wind (the wind that brings the spring rains); name of Moiraine's horse

alep—(n.) son

algai—(n.) battle person, fighter

algai’d'siswai—(n.) Aiel term meaning the spear fighters; literally, battle person of the spear

alget—(v.) fight

Al’ghol—(n.) a Trolloc band; literally, the soulless

algode—(n. & adj.) cotton; a plant fiber from the Aiel waste

allein—(n.) man

allen—(n.) hill

allende—(v.) pass, as in passing through or by, not as in handing something over

allwair—(n.) key

am—(generally prefix) pertains to beauty

aman—(n.) dragon; Aman—theDragon

amela—(n.) friend

amotath—(n.) attraction

an—(prep.) of; of the; for the

an—(suffix) used to indicate plural form

ande—(n.) rose

andi—(suffix) denotes stone-like quality

andillar—(n.) stone

ane—(suffix) used to indicate past tense

anfear—(n.) night

angreal—(n.) “of the power to channel”; a device that enhances the power to channel

anouge—(v.) cough

ansoen—(n.) lies

ara—(suffix) indicates possession, i.e., “my” or “of mine”

arahar—(n.) curtain

aran—(adj.) right-hand or right-side

aran'gar—(n.) right-hand dagger; also the name of a reborn Forsaken

aridhol—(n.) “land of harmony”; city of the Second Covenant

aris—(n.) harmony; see aridhol

arkati—(n.) school

asa—(pron. & n.) you; also, a concubine in Seanchan

ascar—(n. & adj.) blue

asha’man—(n.) guardian/defender; having an implication of siding with justice and right; literally, guard of the blade, a term suggested by Bashere from Old Tongue

ashan—(prefix) guard

ashandarei—(n.) Birgitte's name for Mat's sword; literally, guard sword

asmodi—(n.) music

asmodean—(n.) musician; name of a Forsaken

aso—(pron.) it

astai—(n.) belief

atha— (n.) person

atha’an—(n.) people/folk; strong implications at the least of nationhood

Atha'an Miere—(n.) People of the Ocean or Waves; Sea Folk

Atha'an Shadar—(n.) People of the Shadow, or Darkfriends

attik—(n. & v.) smile

aven—(v.) call

avende—(n.) tree(s)

Avendesora—(n.) the Tree of Life; chora tree

Avendoraldera—(n.) an offshoot of Avendesora found outside the Waste

a’vron—(n.) watcher(s)

ayashiel—(n.) fowl

ayend—(n.) refers to the dead, those who have passed, those who have released their mortal coil; a root word related to ayende and allende

ayende—(v.) release/free

ayend’an—(prep.) of the fallen or the dead

azafi—(n.) canvas


Ba’alzamon—(n.) Heart of the Dark

ba’asa—(n.) your heart, devoted one

bachri—(n.) bread

badan—(n.) bath

bah(a)—(n.) box(es)

baichan—(adj.) sticky

baid—(n. & adj.) self

baijan—(n.) attack

Baijan’m’hael—(n.) Leader of the Attack

bairnu—(v.) crack

bajad—(n.) spawn

bak—(adv.) how

bal—(n.) circle

balad—(adj.) slow

balfone—(n.) a musical instrument of the Age of Legends

balt—(n.) essence, root or heart

balthamel—(n.) “essence of youth”;·name of a Forsaken

banta—(n.) seat

baroc—(n.) hour

basho—(prep., adj. & adv.) under

bat—(prep.) against

batthien—(adj.) hard

bazam—(n.) arm

beatha—(n.) art

bebak—(adj.) quiet

begoud—(adj.) bad

begrat—(v.) swear

begratanae—(adj.) sworn

be'lal—(n.) “desire to have”; the Envious, name of a Forsaken

belo—(v.) desire

beratam—(n.) distance

betakai—(n. & adv.) yesterday

beulin—(n. & adj.) front

bhadi—(n.) company

bhan—(n.) eradication or annihilation

Bhan'sheen—(n.) a Trolloc band; literally, bringers of annihilation

bhardo—(n.) building

bhashan—(n.) hearing

bhoot—(v.) screw

bhuk—(n.) doubt

bideli—(n.) form

bift—(adj.) still

bighar—(adj.) conscious

bijoun—(n.) flower

binti—(adj .) delicate

birok—(n.) beet

blagh—(n.) book

bloobh—(n.) stomach

boan—(n.) female ideal of beauty

bodong—(n.) rhythm

boesin—(n.) floor

bokhen—(adj.) ill

boko—(adj.) fat

bolar—(adj.) special

bolga—(v.) talk

bopo—(n.) baby

borz—(n.) coal

botay—(n.) male ideal of beauty

brett—(n.) letter

breudon—(n.) suggestion

brith—(n. & v.) kiss

brynza—(n.) cheese

budhvai—(adj.) liquid

buggel—(v.) play

buido—(n. & v.) knot

bumma—(n.) moon

bunok—(v.) act


ca—(v. aux.) do; as an intensifier; e.g., Lyet ye means “I come”; Ca’lyet ye means “I do come”

caba—(n.) horse

caba'donde—(n.) a horse to ride

caba'drin—(n.) cavalr y/horsemen

caballein—(n.) horseman; also used to indicate a free man

cadi—(n.) cloth

cadin—(n.) clothes

cadin'sor—(n.) working clothes, worn by Aiel

cafar—(n.) vicious creatures from the Age of Legends; mentioned by Sammael

caili—(n.) skirt

cair—( n . & adj.) gold(en)

caisen—(adj.) old

cal—( n . & adj.) red

calazar—(n.) harbor

caldazar—(n.) red eagle

caledon—(n.) metal

calhar—(n.) red hand

calichniye—(interjection) welcome

Callandor—(n.) The Sword That Is Not a Sword, the Sword That Cannot Be Touched

ca'lyet—(v.) do come

canant—(n.) news

cantheal—(n.) train

capar—(n.) a large, hairy boar-like animal from the Aiel Waste

car—(n.) chief

car'a'carn—(n.) chief of chiefs; capitalized, the Aiel name for the Dragon Reborn

carai—(n.) honor; can be used in the sense of “for the honor”

carentin—(n.) worth, or, of an equivalent value

carn—(n.) chiefs

carneira—(n.) a Malkieri's first lover

casgard—(n.) ornament

cassort—(adj.) married

cavastu—(adj.) angry

cemaros—(n.) great winter tempests from Sea of Storms

cha—(n.) talon, claw

Cha Faile—(n.) the Falcon's Talon: name taken by Faile's followers

chaki—(adj.) bitter

chalin—(adj.) sweet

chalinda—(n.) sweet girl; an Old Tongue name given to Min by Siuan

chalot—(v.) claw

chanda—(n.) soup

chanukar—(n.) island

chati—(n.) breath

chatkar—(n.) prose

chegham—(n.) rate

cheghar—(n.) credit

chekrut—(adj.) violent

chelan—(n.) roof

chenal—(n.) support

cheta—(n.) face

chicaba—(n.) engine

chiema—(n.) winter

chinje—(n.) a wheel used in gambling,

perhaps like roulette

chinnar—(n.) body

chinti—(adj.) small

chitzi—(v.) sneeze

choba—(complex word form) used in a formal greeting to the Ogier, meaning “to the humble one before you”

chora—(n.) a construct from the Age of Legends, a beneficent tree

choryat— (n. & adj.) five, a quantifier of material objects

chorye— (n . & adj.) five, descriptive of the immaterial, such as ideas, arguments, or propositions

choshih—(complex word form) used in a formal greeting to the Ogier, meaning “to the unworthy one before you”

choss—(n.) something hauled away on farms, i.e., manure; spoken of by Sammael

choutsin—(adj.) strange

chukhar—(v. & adj.) shut

cierto—(adj.) resolute, determined enduring; in certain contexts, is a temporal reference

ciyat—(n.) price

claddin—(adj.) tired

clomak—(n.) lock

cloriol—(n.) scale

con—(n.) a small banner

conagh—(n.) answer

concion—(n.) summons

conde—(n.) walker(s)

conden—(v.) walk

conje—(n.) a type of needle, thought of by Sammael

cor—(n.) night

Cor Darei—(n.) Night Spears: Aiel warrior society

corda—(n.) the heart; that which is at the center

Cordamora—(n.) Heart of the People: name of the palace in Maradon

corea—(n.) musical instrument of the Age of Legends

coreer—(n.) poisonous snake from the Age of Legends

Corenne—(n.) the Return; a Seanchan concept

corlm—(n.) a Seanchan exotic animal, looks like a large flightless bird with fur, a predator

cosa—(n.) a creature from the Age of Legends that scampers up trees for protection; mentioned by Graendal

cour—(n.) trap, container

cour'souvra—(n.) mindtrap; used on the Forsaken

cova—(n.) owner, one who owns

covale—(n. & adj.) property; owned; used among the Seanchan for “slave(s)”

cuande—(n.) a stress-induced condition that is often experienced as chest pain, i.e., anxiety

cue, cuen—(prefix) refers to the heart

cuebiyar—(n.) (my) heart; capitalized, it refers to the heart of a nation or people, or the heart of a ruler

cuendar—(n. & adj.) heart (changes form when combined with other words or word segments)

cuendillar—(n.) heartstone

cueran—(n.) a building material; from a Semirhage point of view

culieb—(n. & adj.) past

cyn—(n. & adj.) last

cyndane—(n.) last chance; name given to reincarnated Lanfear


d—(prep.) of; belonging to; strong implications of ownership, or

inferior position

da—(n.) one; person; individual (neutral gender; male or female)

daarlot—(n.) crime 

dabor—(n.) picture

Da'concion—(n.) the Chosen Ones; Seanchan term

da'covale—(n.) a person who is owned; a slave, according to Seanchan usage; this is the older form, usually replaced now simply by covale or “property”

dada—(n.) father

dadaranell—(n.) “father of ranges”; from Mafal Dadaranell, ancient name of Fal Dara

dae—(adj.) complex; intricate; implications of delicacy; great

dae'mar—(n.) an intricate or complex game, that requires a delicate


dae'vin—(n.) treaty

daes—(n.) many people; multitudes; implications of diversity, of milling (not a unified group of individuals)

Daes Dae'mar—(n.) the Great Game ‘ also known as the Game of Houses literally, “Many People Game”or “the Complex Game that Uses Multitudes”; played in southern countries, particularly in Cairhien; some say developed by the Aes Sedai

daghain—(n.) fear

dahid—(n.) note

dai—(n., v. & adj.) battle; struggle; strive

daien—(n.) dancer of the old days; mentioned by Aran'gar

Dai Shan—(n.) title for Lan; literally, “(Diademed) Battle Lord”

daishar—(n.) glory (literally: “battle blood ”or “blood of battles”)

dal—(n.) bowl, basin or vessel

dalae—_(past part.) is paid

dale—(v.) pay

dali—(n.) clock

dam—(v.) leash

damane—(n.) leashed; used by the Seanchan to mean “leashed one” or “those who are leashed” (technically this would be da'damane, but would compress because of the overlapping sounds, to damane)

dane—(n.) chance (variant is diane)

dantor—(n.) theory

dao—(n.) cord

daori—(n.) hair cut by a Malkieri’s carneira and saved, woven into a cord

dar—(adv.) forward (direction)

dar—(n.) sister

dar—(suffix) indicates the feminine

darath—(n.) a type of fierce animal; from a Moghedien point of view

darei—(n.) spears (plural of dareis); used by Aiel

dareis—(n.) spear

darm—(adj.) serious

darshi—(v.) see

Da'shain Aiel—(n.) literally: “People to Peace Dedicated” (sometimes shortened to “Da’shain”)

da'tsang—(n.) despised one; one who is despised; used by Aiel

de—(prefix) refers to an agent of action; (suffix) denotes negation

deebo—(n. & adj.) brown

dekhar—(adj.) political

demandred—(n.) one who twists the blade; name of a Forsaken

dena—(n.) song

der—(n. prefix) master, as in a master of a craft; thus among the Seanchan, der'morat'raken is one who is advanced in the craft/skill of handling raken, one who trains others to handle them, and therefore a trainer of mo rat' raken; likewise, a der'sul'dam is one skilled enough to train those sul'dam who train and handle damane

der—(prep.) from

dera—(suffix) means “derived from”

deshi—(suffix) denotes hundreds (yat/ye suffix is dropped above the

teens); e.g., chor'deshi = five hundred

deshi—(n. & adj.) one hundred

desta—(v.) stop

desu—(n.) bed

desyat—(adj.) ten; a quantifier of material objects

desye—(adj.) ten; descriptive of the immaterial, such as ideas, arguments or propositions

devor—(v.) ask

devoriska—(rel. pron.) what was asked

deyeniye—(n.) majesty

dha——(n.) agony, anguish

dhai—(adj.) pertaining to war or a great battle

Dhai'mon—(n.) a Trolloc band; literally, scythes of war

dhakdi—(n.) cloud(s)

dhalen—(n.) money

dhamel—(n.) shade

Dha'vol—(n.) a Trolloc band; literally, sires of agony

dhjin—(n.) terror or horror

Dhjin'nen—(n.) a Trolloc band; literally, those who cause terror

dhol—(n.) land

dhub—(n.) ball

diane—(n.) chance (var. of dane)

diband—(adj.) dependent

dibbuk—(n.) interest

dieb—(n.) wind

difrol—(n.) waste

dillar—(suffix) means “stone”

din—(n.) brother(s)

din—(suffix) indicates masculine

dinya—(v.) care

diutic—(n.) tongue

dival—(n.) light

diy—(v.) sound

diynen—(n.) sounder, one who produces a sound

djanzei—(n., adj. & adv.) south

do—(prep.) over

doko—(pron. & adv.) where

Do Miere A'vron—(n.) Watchers Over the Waves; literally: Over the

Sea/Waves, Watchers

domashita—(v.) warm(s)

domorakoshi—(n.) language

don—(suffix) denotes importance

donde—(v.) ride; has to do with riding

doon—(n. & adj.) black or very dark

doorn—(adj.) thick  

doozhi— (b.) burst

dor—(n. &. adj.) red

dore—(n.) mountains

dornat—(n.) a hunting critter thought of by Graendal

doti—(n.) nut

dovie—(adj.) relates to luck

dovie'andi—(n.) dice

dovienya—(n.) luck

dred—(v.) twist

drelle—(suffix) means river; water(s) of.

drenni—(v.) turn

drin—(n.) man/men/soldier(s)

drosin—(n. & adj.) green

drova—(n.) hag, beldam, old woman

drovja—(adj.) of a beldam

druna—(v.) push

duadhe—(n.) water

Duadhe Mahdi'in—(n.) Water Seekers; an Aiel warrior society

dudhi—(n.) cow

duente—(v.) holds/grips; has a hold/grip on

dumki—(n.) army

dvoyat—(adj.) two, a quantifier of mate rial objects

dvoye—(adj.) two, descriptive of the immaterial, such as ideas, arguments or propositions

dvoyn—(n. & adj.) second

dyani—(adj.) natural

dyu—(adv. & prep.) by

dzigal—(adj.) flat


e—(conj.) and

einto—(n.) addition

el—(prefix) added to the first name of a Malkieri queen; (suffix) denotes “hope”; e.g., Sammael

ellis—(n.) sun

Ellisande—(n.) the Rose of the Sun; literally Sunrose

en—(suffix) makes plural·also derived from jenn to mean “true”

era—(suffix) modifier meaning “blue ”as in seiera

es—(suffix) denotes many, as in daes

ethaantar—(v.) transport

evierto—(v.) polish


fada—(adj.) sad

faerstin—(n.) adjustment

faile—(n.) falcon

fakha—(v.) sail

far—(prep.) of; also, an indication of mobility

Far Aldazar Din—(n.) Brothers of the Eagle: Aiel warrior socie ty

Far Dareis Mai—(n.) Maidens of the Spear: Aiel warrior society

farhota—(n.) brass

fear—(n.) night

feia—(n.) speaker

feiro—(v.) exchange

feist—(v.) que stion

fel—(poss. pron.) our

fenter—(n.) verse

feros—(n.) soil

ferster—(n.) garden

finin—(n.) nephew

fintan—(n.) cup

folyt—(adj.) able

fonnai—(n.) place

for—(n.) herd

frait—(adj.) strong

fringfran—(n.) cork

furthadin—(n.) statement


ga—(v.) is

gadhat—(n.) thread

gadou—(v.) change

gai—(n.) battle

gaidin—(n.) brother to/of battle; Aes Sedai use this word for Warders

gai'don—(n.) battle, but a key battle, that will win or lose a campaign or war

gai'shain—(n.) Aiel word, meaning “those sworn to peace in battle”

galamok—(n.) shirt

gar—(n.) dagger or lethal device

gara—(n.) a type of poisonous lizard from Aiel Waste

garan—(adj.) solid

gashi—(v.) profit

gavane—(pron., adj. & adv.) what

gemarisae—(v.) is made

gemarise—(v.) make

ghael—(suffix) pertains to brutes, beasts, monsters

ghal—(v.) curve

ghani—(n.) purpose

ghar—(n.) venom or acid

Ghar'ghael—(n.) a Trolloc band; literally, brutes of venom

ghazh—(n.) chin

gheuth—(v.) cry

gheym—(n. & v.) measure

ghiro—(adv.) thus

ghleh—(n.) limit

ghoba—(n.) the soul

Ghob'hlin—(n.) a Trolloc band; literally, harvesters of souls

Gho'hlem—(n.) a Trolloc band; literally, takers of souls

gholam—(n.) one of the Shadowspawn; means “soulless”

ghow—(adj.) hollow

ghraem—(n.) the mighty, the all-powerful

Ghraem'lan—(n.) a Trolloc band; literally, prized of the mighty

ghul—(n.) pit or hole

ghuni—(n. & v.) smoke·

gidhi—(adj.) normal

glasti—(adj.) even

glimp—(n.) minute

gobhat—(n.) plant

gomaen—(n. & v.) attempt

gorista—(v.) use

gouql—(v.) look

gozai—(n.) chest

graedo—(v.) please

graen—(n.) pleasure

graendal—(n.) vessel of pleasure; name of a Forsaken

greal—(n.) the power to channel 

griest—(n.) rail

grolm—(n.) a fierce Seanchan animal used in battle

gruget—(v.) stretch

gubbel—(adj.) feeble

gwiltor—(n.) wire

gurupat—(n.) oath


haar—(n.) opinion

habish—(n.) ear

hadori—(n.) a Malkieri headband

hadzi—(v.) cause

hael—(v.) lead

hafi—(n.) part

Hailene—(n.) a Seanchan term meaning forerunners, Those Who Come Before

hakhel—(n.) nail

hama—(n.) dancer(s); implies particular grace and fluidity, a stateliness

Hama N'dore—(n.) Mountain Dancers: Aiel warrior society

hanol—(n.) wound

har(an)—(n.) hand

harben—(v.) take

harvo—(v.) pump

hasta—(n.) paste

hathi—(n.) muscle

havokiz—(n.) invention

hawali—(adj.) wide

heatsu—(v.) join

heesh—(adj.) smooth

hei—(adv.) always

heinst—(v.) send

hessa—(n.) forgiveness

hessalam—(n. & adj.) without forgiveness; name of a Forsaken

hienisus—(n.) design

hirato—(n.) space

hlem—(suffix) means those who take

hlin—(suffix) means those who harvest

hochin—(n., adj. & adv.) east

holubi—(n.) comfort

hoba—(n.) oil

hodifo—(adj.) responsible

homa—(v.) offer

hoptah—(n.) week

hosiya—(v.) till

hou'dabor—(n.) dream

houghan—(n.) structure

houma—(v.) sleep

humat—(n.) existence

hutsah—(n.) bucket


ibalets—(n.) thumb

ikaat—(n.) wax

illar—(suffix) pertains to stone

imsoen—(n.) truth

in—(suffix) creates plural form

inda—(n.) girl

inde—(n. & adv.) no or not; a general negation

indemela—(n.) enemy

ing—(suffix) indicates something of utmost importance

iqet—(pron., adj. & adv.) this 

iro—(pron.) we

isain——(v.) is; one form of “to be”

isainde——(v. neg.) is no/is not/am no/am not (insistent; emphatic)

isham——(n.) betrayer

ishamae—(n.) betrayer of hope; name of a Forsaken

ishar—(v.) betray

ishavid—(n.) betrayal

iska—(suffix) means “that which was”

istor—(n.) fiction

izaad—(n.) wool


-ja—(suffix) means “of” or “issued from”

jaahni—(n.) reading

jabro—(n.) tooth

jalat—(n. & v.) burn

jalbouk—(n.) kettle

jalou—(v.) go

jalid—(n.) heat

jeade—(n.) finder

jeade'en—(n.) true finder; name of Jain Farstrider's and Rand’s horse

jegal—(n.) a scaled creature thought of by Sammael

jemena—(v.) farm

jenn—(adj. & adv.) true, truly, or even“only true”; implies that all others are false or fake

jhabal—(n.) brush

jheda—(adj.) exquisite; name of the royal palace of Ghealdan

jhin—(n.) exaltation

ji—(n.) honor

ji'e'toh—(n.) honor and obligation; used by Aiel

jobei—(n.) apparatus

juma—(n.) worm

jumara—(n.) one of Aginor's creations, mentioned by Sammael, that were intended to transform themselves; now called Worms in

the Blight, full-grown but untransformed


kaarash—(n.) discovery

kaarto—(n.) tax

kadu—(n.) lip

kaf—(n.) a caffeinated beverage, brewed from the roasted seed of a fruit-bearing shrub cultivated in the mountains of Seanchan

kakamo—(adj.) quick

kanjo—(n.) emotion

kar—(suffix) means punishment through the nervous system

karagaeth—(n.) punishment

kardon—(n.) green-skinned fruit from a leafless spiny plant in Aiel


kasaar—(n.) order

kashen—(n.) fork

kathana—(v.) kick

katien—(n.) size

kazath—(v.) say

kazka—(n.) grain

keesh—(adv. & prep.) out

keisa—(n.) jewel

kelet—(n.) rod

kelindun—(n.) general (milita ry rank)

kesan—(n. & adj.) steel

kesiera—(n.) jewelry worn on theforehead, such as that worn by Moiraine

kesool—(n.) shoe

ketvar—(n.) chain

keymar—(n.) color

khadi—(n.) bone

khalig—(n.) history

khamu—(n.) year

khoop—(v.) blow

khust—(adj.) dry

kikola—(n.) list

killo—(n.) pin

kippat—(n.) ticket

ki'sain—(n.) Malkieri woman’s forehead adornment

kiserai—(n.) glory, honor

Kiseran—(n.) a title Siuan used to address Loial, meaning “honorable one”

kjasic—(adj.) an obscenity, spoken by Sammael

kloye—(n.) bell

Kno'mon—(n.) a Trolloc band; literally, scythes of devastation

knotai—(n.) devastation, ruin

koanto—(n.) learning

Ko'bal—(n.) a Trolloc band; literally, circle of one, i.e., brotherhood

ko'di—(n.) the Oneness, the void, or the flame and the void: a meditative state

kodome—(n. & adv.) here

koja—(n. & adv.) there

komad—(adj.) mixed

komalin—(adj.) weak

komo—(v.) put

kontar—(n.) board

korero—(n.) discussion

koudam—(n., adj. & adv.) west

koult—(adv.) quite

kovist—(n.) tail

koyat— (ad j.) one, a quantifier of material objects

koye—(adj.) one, descriptive of the immaterial, such as ideas, arguments or propositions

koyn — (n ., adj. & adv.) first

kozat—(n.) unit

kramayage—(n.) development

kramtor—(n.) store

kriko—(n.) bird

kritam—(adj.) tight

kuruta—(n.) cart

kuthli—(v.) laugh

kutya—(n.) feeling


la—(n.) daughter

laada—(adj.) long

labani—(n.) reward

lahdin—(n.) observation

laero—(n.) flag

lagien—(n.) town

laido—(n.) summer

lakevan—(n.) motion

lal—(v.) have

lam—(suffix) indicates a lack, being without

lamena—(n.) frame

lan—(adj.) prized or beloved

lanfear—daughter of the night; name of a Forsaken

lashite—(n.) meeting

lato—(n.) angle

lavakh—(n.) wood

leagh—(n.) page

leffal—(n.) stage

lendha—(v.) fall

lennito—(n. & adj.) military

liede—(n.) neck

lindhi—(n.) monkey

lishno—(n.) trouble

loftan—(n.) material

logoth—(n.) place of waiti ng

lopar—(n.) huge fighting exotic animal of the Seanchan

lormae—(v.) is written

lorme—(v.) write

los—(n., adj. & adv.) forward

loviyaga/loviyagae—(n.) memory/memories

lyet—(v.) come


m—(prefix) means “of"

ma—(prefix) indicates importance

ma—(v.) “you give"

maani—(adv.) very

maast—(adj.) necessary

machin—(n.) destruction

Machin Shin—(n.) “journey of destruction"; the Black Wind, a major threat in the Ways

mad—(adj.) loud

mael—(n.) hope

mafal—(n.) mouth or pass

Mafal Dadaranelt—(n.) “pass at the father of mountain ranges”; ancient name for Fal Dara

magami—(n.) little uncle; what Amalisa called King Easar in private

mageen—(n.) daisy

mah'alleinir—(n.) he who soars; literally “seeking man of the stars”; the name Perrin gave to his Power-wrought hammer

mahdi—(n.) seeker; used for leader of Tuatha'an caravan

mahdi'in—(n.) seekers

mahrha—(v.) paint

mai—(n.) maiden(s)

makitai—(n.) wheel

mamai—(n. & adj.) future

mamu—(n.) mother

man—(adj.) related to blade/sword (“man” has the same root as “war”, “violence”, or “aggression”)

mandarh—(n.) blade; name of Lan’s stallion

Manetheren—(n.) mountain home; one of the Ten Nations

manetherendrelle—(n.) waters of the mountain home

manive—(v.) drive

manivin—(n.) driving

manshima—(n.) sword/blade

manshimaya—(n.) my own sword

mar—(n.) game

maral—(adj.) destined

marath—(prefix) indicates that something must be done, suggesting urgency; Seanchan word

marath'damane—(n.) those who must be leashed/one who must be

leashed; Seanchan term

marcador—(n.) hammer

marna—(v.) swim

maromi—(v.) crush

mashi—(n. & v.) love

mashiara—(n.) my love; but a hopeless love, perhaps already lost; Lan to Nynaeve

masnad—(n.) trade

maspil—(n.) butter

mastri—(n.) fish

mat—(v.) control

matuet—(adj.) important

ma'vron—(n.) watchers of importance

mawaith—(n.) reaction

medan—(n.) sugar

melaz—(n.) inn

melimo—(n.) apple

mera—(prep.) without; lacking

Mera'din—(n.) the Brotherless; used by Aiel

merwon—(adj.) boiling

mesaana—(n.) teacher of lessons; name of one of the Forsaken

mestani—(n.) lessons

mestrak—(n.) necessity

m'hael—(n.) leader (capitalized implies “Supreme Leader"; title Taim gave himself)

mi—(poss. pron.) my

mia—(pron.) me; myself

Mia'cova—(n.) One Who Owns Me, My Owner; term used by Moghedien after she was enslaved by a mind trap

miere—(n.) ocean/waves

mikra—(n.) shame

min—(adj.) little

minyat—(adj.) eight, a quantifier of material objects

minye—(adj.) eight, escriptive of the immaterial, such as ideas, arguments or propositions

miou—(n.) cat

mirhage—(n.) pain, or the promise or expectation of pain

misain—(v.) am (insistent; emphatic)

mist—(n. & adj.) middle

mitris—(adj.) dirty

modan—(n.) approval

moghedien—(n.) a particular breed of spider; small, deadly poisonous and extremely reclusive; name of

a Forsaken

mokol—(n.) milk

mon—(adj.) related to scythe

moodi—(adj.) frequent

mora—(n.) the people or a population

morasu—(n.) morning

morat—(n. prefix) handler/controller; i.e., one who handles or controls; used by the Seanchan (as in morat'raken, one who handles raken)

mordero—(adj.) death

moridin—(n.) a grave; tomb; also, the name of a Forsaken, for whom the word's meaning refers to death

moro—(adv. & conj.) so

mos—(adj., adv. & prep.) down

mosai—(adj.) low

mosiel—(v.) lower

mosiev—(adj.) lowered or downcast

motai—(n.) Aiel name for a sweet crunchy grub found in the Waste

mourets—(n.) mushroom(s)

mozhlit—(adj.) possible

m'taal—(adj.) of stone

muad—(n., adj. & adv.) foot/on foot/afoot

muad'drin—(n.) infantry/footmen

muaghde—(n.) meat

mukhrat—(adj.) private

mund—(adj.) high

mustiel—(n.) sock

mystvo—(n.) office


n—(prep. prefix) means “of” or “from”

nabir—(n.) fire

nachna—(n.) science

nadula—(n.) force

Nae'blis—(n.) title of Shai'tan's first lieutenant

nag—(n.) day

nagaru—(n.) snake

nahobo—(adj.) full

nahodil—(n.) cushion

nai—(n.) knife, dagger, blade; a blade smaller than a sword's blade; can be used in modification also to mean “stabbing”

nais—(v.) smell

naito—(n.) flame

nak—(pron.) who

nakhino—(n.) month

n'am—(adj.) beautiful

naparet—(adj.) parallel

nar'baha—(n.) traveling boxes;

nardes—(n.) thought

narfa—(adj.) foolish

nasai—(n., v. & adj.) wrong

nausig—(n.) boat

navyat—(adj.) nine, a quantifier of material objects

navye—(adj.) nine, descriptive of the immaterial, such as ideas, arguments or propositions

nayabo—(n.) prison

n'baid—(adj.) automatic

n'dore—(adj.) of/from the mountains

neb—(n.) mist

nedar—(n.) tusked water pig found in the Drowned Lands

neidu—(adj.) new

neisen—(adv.) why

nemhage—(n.) distribution

nen—(suffix) like adding “er” to an English verb, indicating one who or that which does, or those who cause

nesodhin—(prep.) through; through this; through it

ni—(prep.) for

niende—(adj.) lost

nieya—(v.) step

ninte—(poss. pron.) your (used more 

formally than “ninto")

ninto—(poss. pron.) your

nirdayn—(n.) hate

no—(conj.) but

no—(pron.) me

nob—(v.) cut

nodavat—(n.) produce

nolve—(v.) give

nolvae—(v.) is given

nor — (n.) cutter or slicer

no'ri—(n.) ancient game now called stones

norvenne—(n.) account

nosane—(v.) speak

nothru—(n.) noseliterally, “fool box”; used by Sammael

noup—(adj. & adv.) only

nupar—(n.) base, as in bottom or

nush—(adj.) deep

nyala—(n.) country

nye—(adv.) again

Nym — (n.) a construct from the Age of Legends, a being who has

beneficial effects on trees and other living things 

o—(adj.) a

ob—(conj.) or

obaen—(n.) a musical instrument of the Age of Legends

obanda—(n.) door

obidum—(n.) spade

obiyar—(n.) position

obrafod—(n.) view

obram—(n.) impulse

ocarn—(n.) toe

odashi—(n.) weather

odi—(pron. & adj.) some

odik—(n.) secretary

oghri—(n.) sky

ohimat—(n.) comparison

olcam—(n.) tin

olesti—(n.) pants

olghan—(n.) drawer

olivem—(n.) pencil

olma—(n. & adj.) poor

ombrede—(n. & v.) rain

on—(suffix) denotes plural form

onadh—(n.) arch

onguli—(n.) ring

onir—(n.) star(s)

oosquai—(n.) a distilled spirit; used by Aiel

orcel—(n.) pig

ordeith—(n.) wormwood; name taken by Padan Fain among the Whitecloaks

orichu—(n. & v.) plow

orobar—(n.) danger

ortu—(adj.) open

orvieda—(v.) print

osan—(adj.) left-hand or left-side

osan'gar—(n.) left-hand dagger; name of a Forsaken

ospouin—(n.) hospital

ost—(prep.) on

otiel—(n.) sponge

otou—(n. & adj.) top

otyat—(adj.) four, a quantifier of material objects

otye—(adj.) four, descriptive of the immaterial, such as ideas, arguments or propositions

ounadh—(n.) wine

ovage—(n.) window

o'vin—(n.) a promise; agreement

ozela—(n.) goat


paathala—(n.) operation

pad—(adj., adv. & prep.) up

padgi—(v.) lift

pakita—(v.) twist

palatu—(n.) word


panjami—(n.) society

pantae—(n.) business

panyat—(adj.) six, a quantifier of material objects

panye—(adj.) six, descriptive of the immaterial, such as ideas, arguments or propositions

papp—(n.) fact

parano—(n. & adj.) coward; base orlow in pejorative sense

parikesh—(n.) leather

pas—(pron.) none

pashren—(n.) scissors

pastien—(v.) protest

patomi—(n.) potato

patra—(n. & adv.) then

peast—(n.) payment

pecara—(n.) tree having pale, wrinkled fruit in Aiel Waste

pedalen—(n.) expansion

pentor—(v.) mass

pepa—(n.) paper

perant—(adv.) together

perit—(n., adj. & v.) equal

perol—(n.) pen

pi—(suffix) indicates numerical teens; e.g., navyat'pi or navye'pi= nineteen

pierskoe—(n.) peach

piesa—(n.) meaning unknown; the name of Leya's horse

pinchota—(n.) stocking

pinikar—(n.) line

pistit—(n.) whistle

pistita—(v.) whistle

pizar—(n.) ant

platip—(n. & adj.) present

platto—(n.) detail

plean—(adj. & adv.) much

ploushin—(n. & adj.) square

po—(conj.) because

pochivat—(v.) start

poldar—(adj.) skinny

polov—(n.) shelf

potadi—(n.) debt

potsa—(n.) collar

poulam—(n.) boot(s)

pranent—(n.) tendency

prashat—(n.) process

prasta—(n.) idea

prato—(adj.) such

pravilam—(adj.) regular

probita—(v.) drink

procol—(n.) map

profel—(v.) test

proyago—(n.) experience

ptash—(n.) effect

punia—(v.) may

punta—(n.) number

purtah—(n., adj. & adv.) enough

purvene—(n.) horn

pyast—(n.) throat


qaato—(n.) cake

qaiset—(pron., adj. & adv.) same

qamir—(n.) silk

qen—(adv. & conj.) when

qinar—(n.) niece


rabat—(v.) manage

rabdo—(adj.) sudden

raf—(v.) fly

ragha—(adj., adv. & prep.) near

rah a — ( n . & adj.) free(dom), having liberty

rahien—(n.) dawn

Rahien Sorei—(n.) Dawn Runners: Aiel warrior society

rahtsi—(n.) authority

rahvin—(n.) “promise of freedom”; name of a Forsaken

raia—(n.) air

rainn—(n.) kennel

raken—(n.) a large flying exotic animal of the Seanchan

rakh—(n., adj. & adv.) back

ramay—(n.) table

ranell—(n.) mountain range(s)

ranzak—(n. & v.) guide

raqit—(v.) shake

rastra—(n.) road

ravad—(n.) street

raya—(poss. pron.) mine; my own

rema'kar—(n.) energy whip; a weapon from the Age of Legends

remath—(n. & v.) whip

rennen—(n.) cook

renni—(v.) cook

rensal—(n.) kitchen

restar—(adj.) medical

rhadiem—(v.) prepare (insistent)·

rhaul—(n.) rice

rhiod—(n.) a world or land

rhub—(n.) a sinall piece

Rhyagelle—(n.) Those Who Come Home, or the Homecomers; a Seanchan term

rieht—(n.) balance

rimbai—(n.) berry

risor—(v.) trick

roban—(n.) oven

rodinat—(n.) relation

roedane—(v.) hit (past tense)

roedna—(v.) bite

ronagh—(n.) slope

roscher—(adj.) separate

rouyte—(n.) mark

rulli—(adj.) round

rumpo—(v.) drop

runyat—(n.) weight


sa—(prefix) used to indicate the superlative

sa—(adv. & prep.) in

saa—(n.) a tiny black fleck that moves across a Forsaken's eyes when the True Power is accessed; increases the more True Power is used

saana——(.n.) teacher

sa'angreal—(n.) a device, stronger than angreal, that enhances the

power to channel

saantar——(.n.) teaching

sa'blagh—(n.) library

safar——(.n. & adj.) white

sag——(.n.) time

sagain——(.n.) it is time.

sahlan——(.n.) attention

sai—(adj. prefix) related to power

saidar——(.n.) the female side of the Power

saidin—(n.) the male side of the Power

sain—(v.) is

saizo—(v.) request

salidien—(n.) humor

samid—(v.) band

samma—(n.) destroyer; blinder

Samma N'Sei—(n.) Eye Blinders

sammael—(n.) destroyer of hope; name of a Forsaken

sanasant—(n.) knowledge

santhal—(n.) industry

sar—(pron.) she

sara—(n.) a dance

sast—(adv.) almost

scrup—(adv. & prep.) between

se—(pron.) themselves

se—(pron.) it(selO

sedai—(n.) servant(s)

seel—(n.) amusement

segade—(n.) spiny leathery plant with white blossoms in Aiel Waste

seia—(n.) eye(s); in those forms where it combines, becomes sei

Seia Doon—(n.) Black Eyes: Aiel warrior society

Sei'cair—(n.) Aiel title for Perrin; literally, “golden eyes"

Seiera—(n.) name of Min's mare; name of a flower known in Baerlon as “blue-eye”

sei'mosiev—(adj.) literally means (of) lowered or downcast eyes, indicates loss of face or honor; used by Seanchan

sei'taer—(adj.) (of) straight or level eyes; used by the Seanchan regarding having or gaining face

semirhage——(.n.) the promise of pain itself, or one who embodies the promise of pain; name of a Forsaken

sene—(adv.) as/like; (v.) to like

seren—(adj.) stubborn; obstinate

serenda—(n.) stubborn one; also, name of the palace of the King of

Amadicia, outside Amador

serenla—(n.) stubborn daughter; an Old Tongue name given Min by Siuan

sha—(n.) noise

shaani—(n.) quality

shadar—(n.) shadow

Shadar Logoth—(n.) Shadow’s Waiting, or Where the Shadow Waits; name of the city Aridhol that became tainted with evil

Shadar Nor—(n.) name given to Latra Posae meaning “Cutter (or

Slicer) of the Shadow”

shae—(n.) dog

shae'en—(n.) dogs

Shae'en M'taal—(n.) Stone Dogs: Aiel warrior society

shaek—(n.) house

shaendi—(n.) aunt

shaff—(n.) condition

shai—(n.) woman

shaidar—(n. & adj.) dark, as in pitch-darkness of night; indication

of evil or wrong

Shaidar Haran—(n.) Hand of the Dark: name of an “extreme” Myrddraal

shaiel—(n.) she/the woman who is dedicated; Tigraine's Aiel name

shain—(n.) peace

Shai'taın—(n.) name of the Dark One

sha'je—(n.) a type of duel in ancient Qal; mentioned by Semirhage

shak—(pron., adj. & adv.) any

sha'mad—(n.) literally, “loud noise”; thunder

Sha'mad Conde—(n.) Thunder Walkers: Aiel warrior society

shama—(n.) a musical instrument of the Age of Legends

shambayan—(n.) chamberlain; man in charge of securing provisions and supplies; a Borderlands term

shan—(n.) lord

shanna'har—(n.) Saldaean anniversary marriage celebration

shao—(v.) jump

shar—(n.) blood; bloodline; refers to descent rather than blood in the veins, i.e., heritage

sha'rah—(n.) an ancient strategy game consisting of a black and white piece called Fisher, a black and white 13 X 13 square board, 33 red pieces and 33 green pieces 

shari—(n.) plural of shar

shatayan—(n.) chatelaine; female in charge of ordering servants and

running the household; Borderlands term

shaval—(n. & adj.) linen

Shayol Ghul—(n.) Doom Pit

Sh'boan—(n.) empress; Sharan term

Sh'botay—(n.) empress's consort; Sharan term

sheen—(n.) bringers of, or those who exemplify something

sheikar—(adj.) bright

shen—(n.) band or group; brother(hood)

Shen an Calhar—(n.) The Band of the Red Hand; originally a legendary Manetheren fighting force from the Trolloc Wars; name adopted by Mat's soldiers

shi—(suffix) denotes multiples of ten (yat/ye suffix is dropped above the teens); e.g., suk'shi = seventy

shiatar—(n. & adj.) iron

shin—(n.) journey

shitak—(adj.) different

shodet—(n.) comb

shost—(n.) knee

shoufa—(n.) dust veil; used by the Aiel

shuk—(n.) health

shukri—(adj.) healthy

sich—(n.) bag

sidama—(n.) radiance

sidhat—(n.) example

simp—(adj.) thin

sin—(n. & pron.) he or man

sind—(adv.) never

siswai—(n.) spear

siswai'aman—(n.) spear(s) of the dragon; term used by the Aiel

slagh—(adj.) bent

sleesh—(n.) dress

smoog—(n.) steam

so—(n.) thing or entity

sob—(conj.) if

sobel—(n.) button

soe—(n.) truth

Soe'feia—(n.) Seanchan Truthspeaker, Speaker of the Truth

soende—(v.) carry

soetam—(n.) great rat found in the Drowned Lands

sofor—(n.) a vehicle having steering planes

so'jhin—(n.) “a thing of exaltation”; Seanchan hereditary upper servants of the blood; also freely translated as “a height among lowliness ”or “both sky and valley”

soovri—(n.) behavior

sor—(n. & adj.) work(ing)

sorbe—(v.) run

sora—(n.) life

sorda—(n.) a distinct species of ratfound in the Aiel Waste

sorei—(n.) runner(s)

soudhov—(n.) cabbage

souk—(n.) bee

souvra—(n.) mind

souvraya—(comb.) literally, “my own mind”

sovin—(n.) hands; unmodified, “hands that are open and empty”

Sovin Nai—(n.) Knife Hands: Aiel warrior society

sovya—(adj.) another/any other

spashoi—(n.) taste

spiat—(v.) help

spillon—(n.) disease

spondat—(adj.) early

spotsu—(n.) bridge

s'redit—(n.) Seanchan name for boar-horses

staba—(n. & adj.) copper

staera—(n.) copper scraping stick for the sweat-tent among the Aiel

stedding—(n.) an Ogier homeland and place of sanctuary

sterpan—(n.) sex

stobur—(n.) stem

straviant—(n.) insurance

streith—(n. & adj.) a textile from the Age of Legends that changed color according to the wearer's emotions

stripo—(n.) wing

suchan—(n.) growth

sukyat—(adj.) seven, a quantifier of material objects

sukye—(adj.) seven, descriptive of the immaterial, such as ideas arguments or propositions

sul—(v.) hold

sul'dam—(n.) leash holder, holder of the leash (literally: hold—leash); a Seanchan term

sulwed—(n.) substance

sunatien—(n.) education

suravye—(n.) peace

sursa—(n.) sticks used to eat in Arad Doman

suzain—(adj.) false

svayor—(n.) soap

swabel—(n.) glove

syndon—(n.) birth

sysyn—(n.) brain

szere—(adj.) lower


ta—(n.) related to the Pattern

ta'maral'ailen—(n.) web of destiny (around those who are ta’veren); literally, pattern destined before; a term used by the Ogier

taak—(adv.) yes

taal—(n. & adj.) stone

taberan—(n.) digestion

taer—(adj.) straight, level or steady; also forthright, straightforward

tahni—(adj.) clean

tai—(adj.) true (plural is tain)

Tai'daishar—(n.) Lord of Glory (literally, the True Glory or True

Blood of Battle); also, the name of Rand's horse

tain—(adj.) plural of tai

Tain Shari—(n.) True Bloods: Aiel warrior society

tai'shar—(n.) true blood; used, e.g., in Tai'shar Manetheren! True Blood of Manetheren! (a greeting of honor used in the Borderlands)

taishite—(v.) favor

tamu—(n.) stamp j

tan—(n. & adj.) sovereign

tana—(v.) get

tanilji—(n.) insect

tar—(n.) tower

tarasin—(n.) tower of man; name of palace in Ebou Dar

tarbun—(n.) hat

tarmon—(adj.) final, last, ultimate

Tarmon Gai'don—(n.) the Last Battle (has passed into everyday use; no longer italicized); from the Prophecies of the Dragon

Tar Valon—(n.) literally, “tower that guards"

tashi—(adj.) ready

taskel—(n.) reason

tasu—(v.) make

tatatoun—(n.) instrument

tati—(n.) voice

ta'veren—(n.) those who cause the fabric of the Pattern to bend around them, changing the weave; literally, “pattern, those who alter or are tied to"

tcheran—(n.) an ancient game, having a board and pieces called High Counselor, Counselors and Spires

tebout—(adj.) probable

tefara—(n.) record

Tel'aran'rhiod—(n.) The Unseen World, World of Dreams; a term used by Aes Sedai

telio—(adj.) transparent

ter—(prefix) refers to a limited or specific application

ter'angreal—(n.) a tool made to perform a specific function using

the One Power; some require channeling to energize, others not

terta—(v.) rub

tezra—(adj.) gray

thamel—(adj.) young, or pertaining to youth

thaz—(prep.) at

theini—(n.) trousers

thorain—(n.) loss

thorat—(n.) coat

ti—(prep.) to

tia—(prep.) to; to the

tiel—(adv. & prep.) about

tiest—(n.) head

tiganza—(n.) Tinkers' dance

timari—(n.) skin

t'ingshen—(n.) treebrother; a compound word that is used in a formal address to an Ogier, which literally means “to you – representative of something most important (i.e., the

tree) – in brotherhood”

tinto—(n.) wall

tipakati—(n.) selection

tippat—(n.) plate

tirast—(v.) pull

t'mat—(n.) a red fruit, from the Aiel Waste

toh—(n.) obligation/duty; a term used by Aiel

tolin—(adj.) stiff

tom—(prep.) among

tongel—(n. & adj.) secret

toopan—(adj.) short

topito—(n.) direction

to'raken—(n.) a huge, exotic flying animal of the Seanchan

torian—(n. & adj.) silver

torkat—(v.) touch

torm—(n.) Seanchan exotic animal, a cross between a horse-sized cat and a lizard

torreale—(n., adj. & adv.) north

totah—(adj. & adv.) far

toulat—(n.) copy

torya—(v.) roll

trefon—(n.) system

treyat—(adj.) three, a quantifier of material objects

treye—(adj.) three, descriptive of theimmaterial, such as ideas, arguments or propositions

tsag—(interjection) bollocks; an obscenity uttered by Sammael

tsang—(adj.) despised

tsatsi—(n.) bottle

tsinas—(n. & v.) brake

tsingu—(n. & v.) honor

tsorovan—(n.) a storm, or a smaller storm

Tsorovan'm'hael—(n.) Storm Leader; the name Taim gave Asha’man Gedwyn

tuatha—(n.) traveler; one who moves from place to place; can be a


Tuatha'an—(n.) the Traveling People

tuhat—(suffix) denotes thousands (yat/ye suffix is dropped above teens); e.g., tre'tuhat= three thousand

tuhat—(adj.) one thousand

tumasen—(adj.) safe

tumerest—(n.) bulb

tunga—(n.) point

tyagani—(n.) respect

tyaku—(v.) keep


ubriva—(n.) surprise

ubunto—(n.) animal

udiya—(adj.) clear

uglat—(v.) smash

uiwa—(adj.) good

uldatein—(n.) division

umeil—(v.) seem

undacar—(n.) plane

ungost—(n.) finger

unyat—(adj. & adv.) late

upendar—(n.) net

urkros—(n.) egg

ursta—(v.) fix

urstae—(adj.) fixed

usont—(n.) tray

uttat—(v.) slip

uvaal—(n.) leg


vaakaja—(n.) sense

vadin—(n.) bar/barrier

vaeku—(v.) station

vaesht—(n. & conj.) while

vakar—(v.) move

valdar—(n.) guard

Valdar Cuebeyari—(n.) the Heart Guard; literally, the Guard of the

Heart (of the Nation/People/Land)

valon—(v.) guard

varkol—(n.) sheep

varma—(n.) ray

vartan—(n.) glass

vasen—(n.) arrow

vasen'cierto—(n.) arrow of time; idiomatic phrase which literally means “arrow enduring”

vastri—(n. & v.) rule

vavaya—(n.) flight

veel—(n.) ink

velach—(n.) receipt

velin—(n.) feather

velu—(v.) end

veren—(n.) those who cause change or are tied to

veshan—(n.) way

vesna—(n.) spring

vetan—(n.) seed

vezo—(n.) chalk

vhool—(n.) basket

viboin—(n.) pocket

vid—(prep.) with

vidhel—(n.) law

vidnu—(v.) sort

viliso—(v.) fold

vin—(n.) promise

vlafael—(n.) government

vlagh—(n.) field

vodish—(n. & v.) judge

vokosh—(n.) hair

vol—(n.) father(s) or sire(s), specific to a male who has used brutal means, i.e., a rapist

vovok—(n.) wolf

vraak—(v.) drain

vrang—(adj.) cruel

vream—(n.) shock

vron—(n.) watcher(s)

vronne—(v.) watch

vyashak—(n.) organization

vyavi—(n.) writing

vyen—(v.) fade

vyropat—(n., adj., adv. & prep.) opposite


wabunen—(n.) connection

wadlian—(adj.) simple

wafal—(n. & adj.) hanging

wagg—(n.) nerve

wahati—(n.) porter

waji—(n. & adv.) now

wakaput—(n.) ship

wanda—(v.) match

wansho—(n.) builders; Shienaran term for the Ogier

wapro—(v.) cover

warat—(n.) branch

washdor—(adj.) wise

wastin—(n.) spoon

watari—(n.) decision

wek—(prep.) off

weladhi—(n.) family

welakai—(n. & adv.) tomorrow

werstom—(n.) food

whado—(adj.) fertile

whakatu—(v.) increase

whandin—(n.) event

whudra—(n. & v.) regret

widon—(adv., prep. & conj.) after

wishti—(n.) sign

witapa—(n.) meal

wixi—(n.) pot

worshi—(n.) machine

wot—(pron. & adj.) that

woudem—(adj.) loose

wuseta—(n.) card


xazzi—(adj.) rough

xelt—(adj.) sharp

xentro—(n.) sand

xeust—(n.) side

xurzan—(n.) representative


ya—(suffi.x) means “my own” 

yaanaho—(n.) competition

yaati—(adj.) physical

yabbeth—(adj.) common

yabedin—(n.) committee

yak—(conj.) than

yalait—(n. & adj.) expert

yalu—(n. & v.) name

yamar—(n.) edge

yappa—(adj.) kind

yasipa—(v.) rest

yatanel—(n.) story

yaso—(adj.) cheap

yazpa—(n. & v.) snow

ye—(pron.) I (sometimes used as an exclamatory fragment)

yedcost—(n.) brick

yeel—(n.) carriage

yekko—(n.) dust

yohini—(v.) damage

youna—(v.) let

youst—(n.) ice

yugol—(adj.) broken

yuntar—(n.) boy


zafar—(adj.) yellow

zalfi—(v.) complete

zahert—(adj.) elastic

zalabadh—(n.) pipe

zaleen—(adj.) soft

zamon—(n.) total darkness

zanda—(n. & adj.) cold

zanzi—(adj.) happy

zara—(n.) a board game played by followers of the Dark One, the pieces of which are live human beings

zarin—(n.) degree

zavilat—(n.) will

zazit—(conj.) though

zela—(n.) salt

zeltain—(n.) need

zemai—(n.) a staple grain, from the Aiel Waste

zemliat—(n.) parcel

zemya—(n.) room

zengar—(adj.) narrow

zheshi—(n.) argument

zhoh—(n.) hook

zhoub—(n.) earth

zialin—(adj.) certain

zinik—(n.) stitch

zintabar—(n.) poison·

zipan—(n.) powder

zladtar—(n.) market

zomara—(n.) zombie—like creations of Aginor, used as servants

zoppen—(adj.) wet

zurye—(n.) grass

zyntam—(n.) error

This is a list of Old Tongue words and their meanings.

Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


  • a: of
  • aan: one
  • aan'allein: one man
  • a'dam[1]: leash that binds damane (lit. of those who are leashed).
  • aes: all
  • aesdaishar: glory to all
  • aethan: shields
  • aiel: dedicated ones
  • ain: is
  • ajah: informal or temporary group of people gathered together for a common purpose or goal, or by a common set of beliefs (also see Ajah)
  • akein: swallow
  • al: the or of the
  • al': son of or lord
  • alantin: brother
  • alcair: the golden
  • al'cair'raheinallen: The Hill of the Golden Dawn (former name of Cairhien)
  • aldazar: the eagle
  • aldieb: westwind (literally "The wind" - the Westwind must be the most important one )
  • algai: fighters
  • algai'd'siswai: = The Fighters of the Spear
  • algode: cloth used to make Wise One shawls
  • alin: west
  • allein: man
  • allen: hill
  • allende: (adj.) forward
  • aman: dragon
  • an: of the; also pluralization of a word
  • ansoen: lies; (loosely) fiction
  • aran: right; right-handed; of the right
  • asa: you
  • asha'man[2]: guardian (of truth and justice)
  • ashan: sword
  • ashandarei: sword-spear (a long polearm with a straight, standard sword length blade for the end: see Naginata)
  • aso: it
  • atha: person (normally used atha'an; "person of" or "people of")
  • aven: call
  • avende: tree
  • avendesora: Tree of Life
  • a'vron: watchers
  • ay: daughter of
  • ayende: release; freedom


  • baha: box
  • baijan: attack
  • bekkar: blood
  • be'lal: envious


  • ca: do
  • cab: free
  • caba: horse
  • caba'donde: a horse to ride
  • caba'drin: cavalry
  • caballein: free man
  • cadin'sor: work clothes
  • cair: gold, golden
  • cal: red
  • caldazar: red eagle (symbol of Manetheren)
  • calhar: red hand
  • calichniye: welcome
  • ca'lyet: do come
  • car: chief (plural: carn)
  • car'a'carn: chief of chiefs
  • carai: for the honor of
  • carneira: first (refers to first lover in the Borderlands)
  • cha: talon
  • chalinda: sweet girl
  • con: banner
  • concion: summons
  • conje: type of needle
  • cor: night
  • corenne: return
  • cour: trap
  • cour'souvra: mind trap
  • cova: owner, one who owns
  • covale: property, owned
  • cue: heart (bodily organ)
  • cuebiyar: heart, or my heart, in the sense of spirit or soul (plural: cuebiyari)
  • Cuebyiar: the Heart, as in the heart or soul of a nation/people, its spirit or morale
  • cuendillar: heartstone
  • cueran: of the heart
  • cyndane: last chance


  • d': of
  • da: one who is; those who are
  • da'covale: slave (lit. one who is property)
  • da'es: great (possibly lit. "one who is all")
  • daes dae'mar[3]: Great Game; game of games, game of houses.
  • daemar: game
  • daghain: fear
  • dai: battle
  • daien: a type of dancer (literal unknown)
  • dai shan: battle lord
  • daishar: glory
  • dal: bowl
  • damane: one who is leashed
  • dar: sister; also denotes feminine aspects
  • dareis: spear (plural: darei)
  • da'shain: peaceful one
  • da'tsang: despised one
  • de: sun
  • der: master (trainer, animal handler) or experienced
  • der'morat: master handler
  • der'sul'dam: master leash holder
  • Deyenieye: Majesty
  • dieb: wind
  • din: brother; also denotes masculine aspects
  • diynen: sounder (as in a person who causes a sound from an instrument)
  • diynen'd'ma'purvene: sounder of the horn
  • do: over
  • domashita: warms
  • domorakoshi: language
  • donde: to ride
  • doon: black
  • dor: red
  • dore: dancer
  • dornat: a creature who hunts (lit. translation unknown)
  • dovie'andi: dice
  • dovienya: luck
  • drelle: river, river of
  • drin: soldiers
  • duadhe: water
  • duente: holds
  • dyu: by


  • e: and
  • en: of the
  • ellisande: rose of the sun
  • era: blue
  • es: all


  • faile: falcon
  • far[4]>: (plural) of the
  • fear: night


  • ga: is
  • gai: battle
  • gaidin: warder (lit brother of battle)
  • gai'shain: pledged to peace in battle
  • gavane: what


  • hailene: forerunners; those who come before
  • hama: mountain
  • har: hand
  • haran: hand of
  • hei: always


  • imsoen: truth; (loosely) non-fiction
  • inde: no; not
  • iro: we
  • isain: is
  • isainde: is not
  • isha: betrayer


  • je: sharp point, edge
  • jeade'en: true finder
  • jegal: a scaled animal
  • jenn: true (possibly true among imposters)
  • ji: honor


  • kardon: cardoon (a type of artichoke)
  • kiserai: glory
  • Kiserai ti Wansho: Glory to the Builders
  • kjasic: an expletive, literal meaning unknown
  • ko'di: The Void or The Oneness
  • kodome: here


  • la: daughter
  • logoth: waiting place
  • los: (verb) advance, forward
  • lyet: come


  • ma[5]: (prefix) ultimate form, quintessence, or deepest essence
  • mael: hope
  • mahdi: seeker
  • mah'alleinir: he who soars
  • mai: maiden
  • man: sharp edge (related to a sword or blade)
  • mandarb: blade
  • mane: leash; leashed
  • manetheren: mountain home
  • manshima: sword
  • maral'ailen: web[verify]
  • marath: must, those who must be
  • marath'damane: those who must be leashed
  • ma'vron: watchers of importance
  • mashiara: beloved of heart, or, love lost
  • mera: lacking; without (suffix)
  • mera'din: brotherless
  • m'hael: leader
  • mi, mia: my
  • miere: ocean; (loosely) waves
  • misain: am
  • moghedien: spider
  • morat: handler (as in animal handler)
  • mordero: death
  • moridin: a grave or tomb
  • Moridin: the grave (as in Death)
  • mosiev: downcast; lowered
  • m'taal: stone
  • muad: foot
  • muad'drin[6]: infantry, foot soldiers
  • muaghde: meat


  • nai: knife
  • nar'baha: fool box
  • niende: lost
  • ninte, ninto: your
  • no: me
  • nor: cutter, slicer
  • no'ri: go (the board game)
  • nosane: speak


  • ordeith: wormwood
  • osan: left; of the left
  • osen: east
  • oosquai: distilled liquor made from zemai or corn


  • pas: none
  • pecara: a type of nut found in the Aiel Waste
  • purvene: horn


  • rahien: dawn
  • rhadiem: prepare
  • rhyagelle: those who come home


  • sa: in
  • sag or sagain: time
  • sai: True Source
  • sam: destroyer
  • se: themselves
  • sedai: servants
  • sei: eyes
  • seia: eyes
  • seiera: blue eyes
  • sene: as, like
  • seren: stubborn
  • shadar: shadow
  • shae: dog
  • shaidar: shadow, darkness (as a conscious entity)
  • shaiel: she who is dedicated
  • shain: peace; peaceful
  • shan: lord[verify]
  • shar: blood
  • shatayan: chatelaine
  • shen: band (of people)
  • shoufa: dustveil
  • siswai: spear
  • soe'feia: truth speaker
  • so'jhin: a height among lowness; (loosely) both sky and valley
  • sora: life
  • sorda: rat
  • sorei: runner
  • souvra: mind
  • souvraya: my mind
  • sovin: knife
  • sovya: another
  • su: son
  • sul: controller
  • sur: daughter
  • sul'dam[7]: damane controller
  • sursa: chopsticks


  • ta: destiny
  • taer: straight or level
  • tar: tower
  • tarmon: final or last
  • tai: true
  • tel'aran'rhiod: unseen world; world of dreams
  • ti, tia: to
  • t'ingshen: treebrother
  • t'mat: tomato
  • toh: obligation
  • tsang: despised
  • tovya: roll (dice)
  • tsorovan: storm
  • tua: travel


  • vadin: bar, barrier
  • val: guard
  • valdar: guardian
  • vron: watcher


  • wansho: builders


  • ye: I


  • zemai: corn

External LinksEdit


  1. A'dam, the leash used on damane, is probably a contraction of "an'damane", meaning "of those who are leashed."
  2. Asha'man is likely a contraction of "Ashan'd'aman", "swords of the dragon;" thus, the connotation of being a guardian of truth and justice would be a cultural thing. The term may originally have referred to the Hundred Companions.
  3. Daes Dae'mar: One translation is "game of games." However, it is a well known fact that in the Old Tongue, words have variable meanings. It is possible that the same game was used for "game" as for "plot"; thus, another possible translation is "game of plots." However, this word may specifically have referred to games of strategy and cunning, such as sha'ra or stones. These games certainly have a similar foundation of Daes Dae'mar.
  4. The phrase "Far X Y" seems to translate as "Y of the X", so "Far Dareis Mai" translates as "Maidens of the Spear."
  5. For example, "Mashadar" may mean "Shadow of the Shadow," while "mashiara" means "heart of my heart;" this meaning was later interpreted as "true love."
  6. "Muad'drin" was probably a new word during the War of the Shadow, because there had been no traces of war left in the Age of Legends. Other words such as battle, sword, spear, etc were probably new as well.
  7. "Sul'dam" is likely a contraction of "sul'damane," "controller of those who are leashed."

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